Research Projects

Effective Removal and Temporary Application of Airfield Pavement Markings In Reserve

The objective is to determine best practices for the safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable removal of existing markings and application of temporary markings on aviation pavement.

 

Behind the idea, the output should address the following questions:

 

• How much removal is adequate to prevent confusion in the cockpit?

• How much tolerance is there for altering the pavement surface?

• Are there mechanical processes, such as a combination of heat and power tools, that can effectively remove the markings? Are there chemical removal systems that are environmentally acceptable?

• Is the removal technique of a reasonable cost for materials, equipment, and labor? Can the implementation of this technique on the airfield realistic regarding the specificities of airside construction works?

• Are there methods of applying a durable coating over the existing pavement marking that will blend in to the appearance of the pavement without endangering aviation safety (e.g. runway pavement adherence or production of FOD)?

 

The final deliverable should include:

• A report on the results of the research efforts conducted during the research project. The report should provide recommendations for direct implementation on the field. The proposed technical solutions should be cost-efficient, easy to implement. They should be adapted to the different types of aviation pavement (asphalt and cement concrete), and be scalable (applicable to small/large projects, small/large and GA/commercial airports).

• A report with practice-ready solutions for helping the practitioners in implementing the techniques recommended by the conclusions of the research project.

Background (Describe the current situation or problem in the industry, and how your idea would address it.)

During airfield construction projects, it is often required to remove or obliterate the existing aviation pavement markings, and to apply temporary markings. These operations can leave scarring, visible on the airfield from the cockpits for years. These remaining traces of former markings can be mistaken, by the air crews as the airfield drivers (esp. tow-tractors), as active aviation markings. The risk of confusion can be particularly high by night and on wet, lighted pavements.

Aviation markings are critical – and even vital in the case of a runway – visual aids. Any risk of confusion is a concern for aviation safety, and it can lead to serious to catastrophic accidents. For instance, an aircraft can taxi on an obsolete taxiway or taxilane centerline, relocated for clearing with proper separation distances a construction site, and collide with temporary equipment or installations. On a runway with a temporarily relocated threshold, if the de-activated initial threshold markings are not clearly removed, the aircraft can land on the initial threshold. Such events already happened in the past. They have been documented by the industry (FAA's Airport Construction Advisory Council, Airports Council International, The French-Speaking Airports, etc.).

There is need for evaluating or developing effective methods and techniques for:
• removing or temporarily obscuring aviation markings from airfield pavements,
• applying temporary markings that are conspicuous for the duration of the works, but can be easily removed without leaving traces.

These should preserve pavement, resist to the conditions of continuous aviation operations, and not generate Foreign Object Debris (FOD). The research effort should benefit from NCHRP Project 14-22 Effective Removal of Pavement Markings.

Approach (Describe in general terms the steps you think are needed to achieve the objective.)

APPROACH
During airfield construct
ion projects, marking removal and temporary markings can leave scarring, visible on the
airfield from the cockpits for years. These remaining traces of former markings can be mistaken, by the air crews as
the airfield drivers, as active aviation markings. The risk of confusion can be particularly high by night and on wet,
lighted pavements.
There is need for evaluating or developing effective methods and techniques for:
- removing or temporarily obscuring aviation markings from airfield pavements,
- applying temporary markings that are conspicuous for the duration of the works, but can be easily removed without
leaving traces.
These should preserve pavement, resist to the conditions of continuous aviation operations, and not generate Foreign
Object Debris (FOD). The research effort should benefit from NCHRP Project 14-
22 Effective Removal of Pavement
Markings.
MAIN OBJECTIVE
The objective of this research project is to determine best practices for the safe, cost
-effective, and environmentally
acceptable
removal of existing markings and application of temporary markings on aviation pavement.
The project shall address the following questions:
- How much removal is adequate to prevent confusion in the cockpit?
- How much tolerance is there for altering the pavement surface?
- Are there mechanical processes, such as a combination of heat and power tools, that can effectively remove the
markings? Are there chemical removal systems that are environmentally acceptable?
- Is the removal technique of a reasonable cost for materials, equipment, and labor? Can the implementation of this
technique on the airfield realistic regarding the specificity of airside construction works?
- Are there methods of applying a durable coating over the existing pavement marking that will blend in to the
appearance of the pavement without endangering aviation safety (e.g. runway pavement adherence or production of
Foreign Object Debris)?
PROPOSED TASKS
The research shall include:
a.
Identification of the best practice in aviation markings,
b.
Identification of techniques and methods in other fields (typically roadway pavement markings) and
evaluation of their transposition on the airfield (e.g. dark coat/adhesive materials for obliterating
taxiway/runway markings),
c.
Development of new techniques and methods as needed,
d.
Real
-scale trials at airports.
Tasks a and b should include interviews of airport operators, contractors, and product manufacturers.
DELIVERABLE
The final deliverable shall include:

A report on the results of the research efforts conducted during the project. The report should provide
recommendations for direct implementation on the field. The proposed technical solutions should be cost
-
efficient, easy to implement.
They should be adapted to the different types of aviation pavement (asphalt and
cement concrete), and be scalable (applicable to small/large projects, small/large and GA/commercial
airports).

A report with practice
-ready solutions for helping the practitioners in implementing the techniques
recommended by the conclusions of the research project.
The two documents can be consolidated into one single material (ACRP report).

Cost Estimate and Backup (Provide a cost estimate and support for how you arrived at the estimate.)

The estimated funding is $450,000.
The estimate research duration is 18 months.

Related Research - List related ACRP and other industry research; describe gaps (see link to Research Roadmaps above), and describe how your idea would address these gaps. This is a critical element of a synthesis topic submission.

- NCHRP Report 759 Effective Removal of Pavement Markings: in 2013, NCHRP released report 759 on the
Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. The related projects explored and evaluated various methods and
techniques for removing roadway pavement markings, as well as obscuring existing markings (e.g. with black tapes).
- U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Advisory Circular 150/5340-
1L, Standards for Airport Markings
- U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Advisory Circular 150/5370-
2G, Operational Safety on Airports During
Construction
- U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Advisory Circular 150/5370-
10G, Standards for Specifying Construction of
Airports
- TRB Straight to Recording for All, Safety of Runway Operations during Construction Works, Nov. 2015
- Safety of the Runway Operations with a Temporary Displaced Threshold During Construction Works, Le Bris G.,
Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, 2014
- What's on Your Runway?, Aero Safety World, Vol. 7, July 2012, pp. 16–19

Annotations
Idea No. 54